By , traffic was so low that bicycles were permitted. Others were no longer useful because of the altered borders, including the occupation zone boundary that became the inner German border between the Federal Republic and the German Democratic Republic. A stretch of highway near Kaiserslautern became the access road to the U. Ramstein Air Base. Debris from the original Drachenloch Bridge below the reconstructed bridge, at the Drackensteiner Hang in the Swabian Alps. There were no shoulders. Autobahn engineers went into Poland before the invasion was complete, Hitler ordered the incorporation of a highway reaching from Aachen through Brussels to Calais , and autobahns between Trier and Paris via Luxembourg, between Oslo and Trondheim in Norway, and between Yaroslavl and Kiev in the USSR and Riga , Latvia, and Leningrad were all being planned in — The Reichsautobahn was initially to be financed by a road use tax, but in this was rejected and instead fuel taxes were raised and car owners taxed.
At the end of the war, total costs were 6. Reduction of unemployment was presented as the main reason for the Reichsautobahn project, and propaganda both used the autobahn to represent the Arbeitsschlacht and Nazi reduction of unemployment in general and emphasized the project's role. This included misleading graphs and exaggerated statistics. However, autobahn employment peaked in at , directly employed in construction and a similar number in the supply chain, so that the autobahn never directly or indirectly employed more than , workers.
Another important reason for building highways was to motorize Germany. This accorded with the Nazis' self-presentation as modernizers. On February 11, , at the Berlin Motor Show, Hitler had already presented promotion of motoring as an important objective, and named an extensive road-building program as the third on his list of four means of realizing it. German manufacturers produced touring buses for the non-car-owning public,  and the Volkswagen then called the KdF-Wagen , Strength Through Joy car, for the Nazi recreation organization was developed and marketed in association with the autobahn to promote car ownership; Hitler first publicly called for its development at the opening of the first Reichsautobahn segment.
Mass production of the "Beetle" started only after Motorization clearly had a military application, providing trucks and drivers that could be used by the military. In addition, Todt's report cited troop transportation as a reason to develop highways: he stated that using , requisitioned vehicles, it would be possible to transport , shock troops the width of the Reich in two nights. A second memorandum written six months later by Gottfried Feder also stressed military uses.
Georg Halter, professor of road construction and railroads at the Technical University of Munich and a Nazi Party member, wrote several pieces beginning in fall in which he contested Todt's report, with respect to strategic applications pointing out that road vehicles had less than a third of the weight capacity of railroad freight wagons, in addition to which the steel wheel-rims and treads of armored vehicles would severely damage the roadway. He also regarded the light-colored concrete that was to be used for the roadways as a guide for enemy aircraft beginning in , the surface was tinted black for this reason, which distressed Hitler  and the planned large viaducts as tempting targets, "like honey to wasps".
Border segments that could have been useful at the start of the war had not been completed because of earlier fears that enemies would use them to invade, and weight testing was not performed until March The German military rarely used the autobahns for troop movements one of the exceptions being transporting flak units ; they were used much more extensively at war's end by the advancing Allies, who did indeed damage them in the process.
It was once common to consider military applications as having been the true main reason the Nazis constructed autobahns, but historians now generally agree that this was an exaggeration. A purpose for the project that increasingly came to the fore was to unify Germany, by enabling Germans to explore it and appreciate its beauty;   including the new territories that had been added to the Reich under the Nazis;  Albert Speer stated that the autobahns were uniform in design to express the unity of the Reich.
Seifert called for architects, rural planners, plant sociology experts and ecologists to contribute to the effort, and maps were made of the native vegetation with the intention of preserving it and providing a "genuine" experience of the landscape. The showpiece aesthetic stretch of the Reichsautobahn was the Irschenberg on the autobahn from Munich to the Austrian border, where instead of passing through the valley, the highway was routed in a curving path up the hill to the summit, from which there was a full view of the Alps to the south.
A rest stop was located there. Many such segments have been straightened and in some cases the highway has been relocated. Todt, who was credited with choosing the route, described it as an orchestrated experience culminating in the surprise view of the Chiemsee , where "[a]nyone who has a proper feel for this landscape Both the hilltop rest stop at the Irschenberg and the rest stop at the Chiemsee were in accordance with general practice on the Reichsautobahn: the highway detoured from the direct route to provide access to cultural sights and views, and rest stops and filling stations were constructed at these points to facilitate leaving the car to appreciate them.
Mitigating damage to the environment was a concern, as part of creating an authentic experience of the landscape, which was to unroll like a movie from the motorist's perspective. The median strip was therefore relatively narrow; trees were retained close to the highway and sometimes, for example in the oak forest near Dessau , in the median. In fact the driver's experience of the forest, assigned symbolic importance in German Romanticism and particularly under the Nazis, was maximized by avoiding straightaways in forested areas so that the driver remained enclosed by the trees as long as possible.
But the Reichsautobahn aimed for a more natural, less parklike view from the road, and although in both countries using natively occurring plants in highway landscaping was important, the Americans selectively emphasized those with an attractive appearance. This was not the policy in the U. From the s through the s there was a broad-based movement in West Germany to remove trees from beside the autobahns as a danger, greatly changing their appearance.
All advertising was banned on the Reichsautobahn. Instead of advertising signs, noticeboards to be used to alert drivers to telephone messages were placed on the median near exits. Women, Womanhood and the Home Front 8. The Family 9. The Jews The Gypsies The 'Asocial' and the Disabled Sexual Outsiders The Radio and Press The Cinema and Theatre Art and Architecture Drawing on a range of significant scholarly works on the subject, Pine informs us as to the major historiographical debates surrounding the subject whilst establishing her own original, interpretative arc.
The book is divided into four parts. The second part examines men, women, the family, the churches and religion. The third section analyses the fate of those groups that were excluded from the Volksgemeinschaft. The final section of the book considers the impact of the Nazi government upon German culture, in particular focusing on the radio and press, cinema and theatre, art and architecture, music and literature.
This new edition includes historiographical updates throughout, an additional chapter on the early Nazi movement and brand new primary source excerpt boxes and illustrations. There is also expanded material on key topics like resistance, women and family, men and masculinity and religion. Bei einer weichen gradlinigen Gradationskurve des Positivs hatten wir zwar gute Durchzeichnungen, jedoch stets unbefriedigende Wiedergabe tiefer Farben.
Bei steilerem Material wurde die Farbwiedergabe zwar besser, aber stets auf Kosten der Durchzeichnung. Hier hatten wir nun eine neue Verbesserung, als wir von einem Material mit gradliniger Gradationskurve abgingen und ein Material mit weich anlaufender, im Gebiet tiefer Farben aber steil auslaufender Gradationskurve verwendeten Abbildung 8. Von Heymer und Sundhoff wurde ein Verfahren angegeben, das diesen Fehler zu kompensieren gestattet. Die rechnerische Auswertung der Methode ist indessen kompliziert. Durch Verstellen des Rundkeiles wird nun paarweise auf gleichen Ausschlag eingestellt und am Rundkeil die Farbdichte der Schichtfarbstoffe abgelesen.
Bei diesem Verfahren wird das Bleichmittel in Form einer hochviskosen Lesung lediglich auf dem Bildteil angetragen. Diese Unscharfe macht sich besonders bei der Wiedergabe hoher Frequenzen bemerkbar. Das bisher Gesagte bezog sich im wesentlichen auf Kinefilm. Rahts in einem besonderen Vortrag noch berichten. Seite 62, In: Film und Farbe. Berlin: Max Hesse A survey of the history of monopack or multilayer photographic color processes is given, including the coloring methods of greatest importance at the present time. These are: a silver dye-bleaching methods and b silver dye-coupling methods.
Silver dye-coupling methods appear to be most promising, and have been successfully applied to monopack films according to two distinct principles. In one method, color-forming compounds are added to the developing solutions. Color separation in this method depends upon control of the speed at which bleaching solutions penetrate superposed emulsion layers.
In the second method, employed in the new Agfacolor process, the different color-forming substances, instead of being added to the developing solution, are incorporated in emulsions that are coated in superposition so that three differently colored images are simultaneously formed in a single development. The metallic silver is subsequently removed by solvents leaving only pure dye images. This new process is based upon the pioneer work on color-forming methods of R. Fischer who, before the World War, developed the process substantially as it is now being used.
Lummerzheim, Berlin. Legt man z. Fischer machte nun den Vorschlag, die Oxydationsprodukte bestimmter Entwickler, die selbst keine Farbstoffe sind, mit einem zweiten Stoff, Komponente genannt, zu einem Farbstoff zu kuppeln. Der Erfinder, der auf dem hier angebahnten Wege weiterarbeiten wollte, stand vor folgender Entscheidung. Also wird an der getroffenen Stelle in der ersten Entwicklung Silber in der oberen Schicht reduziert, in der mittleren und unteren Schicht nicht.
Wird dagegen an einer anderen Stelle ein roter Bildpunkt abgebildet, so ergibt sich hier in der ersten Entwicklung Silberreduktion in der unteren Schicht und in der zweiten Entwicklung Farbstoffbildung in der oberen gelb und mittleren Schicht purpur. In der Durchsicht ergibt dies nach Entfernung des Silbers Rot.
Belichtung, 4. Belichtung, 3. Farbentwicklung, 4. Entsilberung, 5. Anders als beim Umkehrverfahren geht man hierbei direkt nach der Aufnahme in den farbstoffbildenden Entwickler. Die Stelle erscheint in der Durchsicht rein gelb. In der Spielfilm- und Kulturfilmherstellung wird nach dem Negativ-Positiv-Verfahren schon seit mehreren Jahren gearbeitet. April In den deutschen und z. In: Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift 63, , pp. Geben wir als das Wort:.
Das ist keineswegs der Fall. Der eine lautete:. Dieses Verfahren war schon von Dr. Fischer und Siegrist gefunden worden; nach ihm werden durch das Zusammenwirken bestimmter Entwickler mit sogenannten Farbkomponenten einfarbige Bilder erzeugt. Kumetat und Dr. Zeh zu nennen. Wilmanns : Wie das Agfacolor-Verfahren entstand.
Manufactured at Wolfen, Germany, by I. Farbenindustrie Akt. The factory is now in the Russian Zone of occupation. Integral tripack, or monopack, with non-diffusing colour couplers incorporated in three emulsion layers. General Description. Homolka and Rudolf Fischer The former discovered that certain intermediates, such as those that gave indigoid dyes, can develop exposed silver bromide producing simultaneously an insoluble dye.
Such agents are indoxyl, 3-hydroxy-thio-naphthene, etc. There is another way, namely that of using the development process indirectly to form dyes. Fischer discovered that dyes, such as those belonging to the quininimine and azomethine class, can be formed when exposed silver bromide is developed with p -phenylene diamine together with coupling substances. During development p -phenylene, or its derivatives, reacts with phenols or naphthols or substances containing a reactive methylene group through the medium of oxidized silver bromide, to form strongly coloured insoluble dyestuffs, the developed silver image being at the same time produced.
Fischer thus conceived the idea of mixing a developing agent, such as an aromatic diamine, or amino phenol and a coupler which could be a phenol or a body containing a negative methylene group. The next step was to incorporate the coupler in the silver halide layer or layers instead of adding it to the developer, but owing to the apparent impossibility at that time of making the dye-forming substances non-diffusing, Fischer, in , had to abandon his project for making a multilayer colour film by applying these discoveries. The physical structure of a gel is such that the conditions for molecular diffusion are ideal.
Hence our ability, amongst other things, to develop a gelatine emulsion. As gelatine can only trap coarse-grained particles insoluble in water, the dyes produced by colour development must be insoluble in water and large in structure. Next, the substances to be incorporated must not adversely affect the sensitivity of the silver halide emulsion. The next important name is that of Dr. William Schneider of the Agfa organization I. He tells us that in instructions were issued that a colour process must forthwith be perfected. In Schneider and G. Wilmanns reported Agfa-Veroefentlichungen , Vol.
Colour couplers similar to those discovered by Fischer were used but these were made fast to diffusion by attaching a long-chain alkyl group, since diffusion depends upon the physical dimensions of the particles determined by molecular weight and constitution. In general, a chain-like structure containing twelve carbon atoms is usually adequate. By virtue of these couplers containing a group soluble in alkali, it was feasible to incorporate them in the gelatine emulsion in an alkaline solution.
In Agfacolor Reversal film was made available in 8 mm. These films were of both daylight and tungsten types, the speed being roughly the same as that of Kodachrome. Immediately following the occupation of Germany, investigation by the Anglo-American Service experts of the Agfa film factory at Wolfen, Germany, revealed that the Germans had developed to a commercial stage the long-promised mm.
None of the colours were particularly saturated, the reds being quite dull. It was not as good as Technicolor. It does not appear that any new developing machines or printers were constructed for the processing of the film, but modifications were made in existing equipment. Between and thirteen feature pictures were made see list below and some fifty shorts consisting of one or two reels.
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The material is particularly suitable for newsreel production, and a picture was made of actual combat in Russia. Ranger U. The latter was. The method is capable of good results if proper control and equipment were used, but under the wartime conditions in Germany there was an apparent lack of good equipment and a generaly laxity in quality control, resulting in many inferior prints being released. Darrel Catling, A. Moreover, a complete change of locale— coinciding with the change of the reels—often helped to cover up the lack of balance.
Incidentally, some of the trick work was of a very high order. Therefore, for the moment at least, it seems apparent that the Agfacolor system is unable to yield cheap prints for commercial release purposes; the cost cannot fail to be very much higher than that of a print consisting of one ordinary emulsion and three different dyes.
Post-war efforts have been confined to the Russians, who have made a number of news films of events such as Dr. Both these films were publicly exhibited in the British theatres, and the writer heard innumerable people express very strongly their view that the colour was to be preferred to that of Technicolor.
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The expert saw that there was anomalous colour rendering due to the very defective magenta coupler, but here and there shots turned up of quite exquisitely satisfying colour, and it is perfectly certain that the Germans were at the beginning of a most important development. The men who were responsible for the achievement have since been interrogated, the opinion unanimously expressed being that they were forced into production before they had completed their task, and that great improvements would shortly have been made in the saturation of the couplers and particularly in the design of the coating machinery.
In the following table, cost figures per foot of rnm. Agfacolor negative and positive film are compared with those for black-and-white film. Late in and early in , monthly production of Agfacolor film at the Agfa film factory at Wolfen amounted to an average of:. It is claimed that under the Russians this has been boosted to more than 15,, ft. Release prints were always made from the original negative and no duplicate negatives were made.
Special effects were made by indirect and trick methods which were not very satisfactory. No masking was used. All Agfacolor films have three emulsion layers and one filter layer Fig. The film base is first coated with a red sensitive emulsion. Directly on top of this is coated a green sensitive emulsion. Next comes a thin layer of colloidal silver which functions as a yellow filter. The final coating is an emulsion sensitive to blue only. The yellow filter, needless to say, has the duty of absorbing blue light transmitted by the top layer, which would otherwise record in the green and red recording layers which are inherently blue sensitive Fig.
No non-stress surface gelatine coating is used and no gelatine coating divides the green and red recording emulsion. The colour couplers dispersed in these emulsions are chosen such that:. The anti-halation coating is on the back of the film base in the negative-positive films and beneath the bottom layer of emulsion in the reversal film see Table The total thickness of the multiple layers does not exceed that of normal film, therefore the separate coatings are required to be extremely thin.
Nitrate base is used for negative. Acetate base is used for positive. Thickness microns. This type of sensitizing is typical of most monopacks, such as Kodachrome, Kodacolor, Ektachrome, and Ansco Color film. The ideal sensitivities can be mathematically calculated relative to either practical or theoretical synthesis, by additive or subtractive methods but the best compromise has to be effected with the materials available Fig. Since it is desirable that the positive material should record in each of its respective layers light modulated by only one layer of the negative, the sensitizing should be designed to correspond to the maximum absorption and minimum overlap of the spectral transmission of the negative dyes Fig.
The relation between negative colours and positive sensitizings can in fact be such as to overlook any relation whatever to what we might expect to be the normal appearance of colours in the negative. By this is meant that the negative colours need not be complementary to the colour of the light recorded. See below. The negative cyan coupler in the present product has remarkable absorption in the deep red and by placing the red sensitivity of the positive far into the red we are assured of the cyan layer of the negative being efficient to modulate this layer only Fig.
Thus the relation between negative and positive can be expressed as follows:. Schneider and others have suggested that there is no reason theoretically why a positive material should not be sensitized, say, in the infra-red, green, and ultra-violet regions, respectively, in order to obtain a more complete colour separation Fig.
In this case the absorption maxima of the three dyes present in the layers of the negative would also have to be in the infra-red, green and ultra-violet Fig. A dye that absorbs only in the infra-red or in the ultraviolet would be colourless to the dye. Such negative material would be magenta only. The development of Agfacolor negative or positive film requires only minor modifications of the standard machines.
We have to provide for a bleaching bath and for washing for a more prolonged period than usual. It is recommended that washing should be entirely carried out by fine jets, or better still by the use of a flat jet issuing from an inclined flattened nozzle. Afterwards the solution is again brought to the prescribed working temperature,.
The simplest layout consists in inserting this apparatus in the developer circuit, otherwise the developer must be strongly agitated to ensure uniform development.
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Plastic materials have been found satisfactory for pumps, and in general, plastics have stood up well for piping and tanks. Precautions must be taken to prevent the formation of foam in circulated solutions to avoid rapid ageing of baths by oxidation. Subsequent to development the washing must be very thorough otherwise a general blue fog will be formed in the bleaching bath if the washing is inadequate. It is absolutely essential that hypo should be completely removed in the final wash. Tanks and tubes have been entirely abandoned for washing at any stage.
Figs, and show the type of spray wash recommended. Subsequent to the first spray wash, or in any case after the bleaching bath the remainder of the processing can be carried out in ordinary illumination. The explanation of the inclusion of a stop bath in the positive sequences is that there is some advantage to be gained from the fact that the developer remaining in the layers continues to be active during the washing, but whereas the developer is soon exhausted in the fully exposed areas the shadows still retain a sufficient supply of fresh developer which continues to produce silver and dye images.
The resulting slight fog is of no consequence in the case of the negative film. In the positive film the highlights must be free from fog, and so the action of the colour developer must be interrupted immediately after development. For this purpose acid salt solutions are suitable, for in spite of the permanent addition of alkaline colour developing solution they retain their hydrogen ion concentration at a p H value of 4 to 5, for some time.
At the same time, by virtue of the formation of easily dissolved salts the developing agent is washed off more quickly. It should be noted that when a silver sound track is desired it is necessary to use an additional and preliminary weak bleach to eliminate the colloidal silver yellow filter layer before applying the final viscous bleach on the picture area see below.
This can be done with a weak bleach which is not strong enough to affect any of the silver in the sound track image. Furthermore it is desirable to include a brief immersion in a five percent, solution of sodium sulphite immediately after the final bleach, to inhibit its action before it has a chance to flow over on to the sound track during the spray wash which succeeds the bleaching bath. The bleach bath is a preparatory stage in the removal of the developed metallic silver entirely from the dye image. Having formed a silver salt, such as silver ferrocyanide, it is easily eliminated by the solvent action of hyposulphite.
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Simultaneously the unexposed silver halide is eliminated. The conventional photocells in use in most projector sound reproducing systems are of the type using a sensitive coating of caesium—silver—oxygen, which is mainly sensitive to red and infra-red radiation. The dyes used in colour development processes transmit radiation in this region, with the result that a dye track is unsatisfactory when used in conjunction with a large proportion of the phototubes used today.
While new photocells have been recently developed having high sensitivity in the green-blue and blue regions of the spectrum, and with these dye tracks are capable of reproduction equalling in quality that of silver tracks, it is nevertheless desirable for the time being to continue to employ the silver image sound track. The German solution of this problem was ingenious.
Obviously the silver track must not be bleached if it is to be retained. The bleaching agent, potassium ferrocyanide, is therefore mixed with a suitably viscous agent and coated only on the picture area of the film. The bleaching solution see formula below is applied to the film from beneath, using a nozzle. This nozzle is supported in such a manner that any join, or film clips, will not jam. There is the obvious advantage of using film travel in the vertical direction for the bleaching stage, and thus saving laboratory floor space. The yellow colloidal silver layer is destroyed in the bleaching bath and it follows therefore that it will remain in the sound track.
Its presence has been found to be of no consequence provided that the present red sensitive photocells are employed. Should the sound track, however, be intended for use with the new caesium- antimony blue sensitive photocells it is necessary to destroy the colloidal silver yellow layer by the use of a weak bleaching agent which has no effect upon the silver of the sound track image.
Subsequently the final viscous bleach may be employed to remove the silver in the picture area as we have described. Very rigid control was instituted in the Continental laboratories which processed Agfacolor negative-positive motion picture film. At the Afifa laboratory in Berlin the developer from the time of preparation was analysed and corrected if necessary.
After 24 hours rest a new analysis indicated whether there was cause for further correction. The bath was analysed twice a day. The hydroxylamine content is measured volumetrically by oxidation with potassium ferrocyanide. The viscous bleach is applied to the picture area only and is used when a silver sound track is desired.
Surface squeegeeing methods have also been employed to remove the bleach before washing. Normal contact or optical printers may be employed; all existing apparatus is therefore usable, but minor modifications must be incorporated in order to make provision for colour grading. In all colour processes in which the print is made in one operation from a coloured negative there must inevitably be two factors to control:. The first factor is controlled by the intensity of the printing light as in printing black-and-white. The second factor is controlled by varying the distribution of energy in the spectrum of the printing illuminant.
It is the second factor which necessitates the introduction of additions to existing apparatus, since the most convenient means of modifying the spectral character of the light is by the automatic introduction of minus red, minus green and minus blue filters into the illumination system. The introduction of a minus filter may obviously reduce the total energy of the printing light and therefore have an effect upon the general density of the print.
Hence in printing colour films such as Dufaycolor or Agfacolor the two factors are interrelated. In general it is impracticable to control the light energy by the introduction of a resistance in the lamp circuit since this alters the temperature of the filament with important effects upon the distribution of energy radiated. The effect of this will be tantamount to the introduction of a colour filter and the results will be too complex to predict with accuracy. It is essential accordingly to keep the voltage over the lamp fixed within severe limits and to use filters only for altering the volume of light in different regions of the spectrum.
The minus filters should have absorption curves closely similar if not identical to the dyes used in the layers of the positive film, thus there can be established a simple relation between the dyes used in the negative film and those of the filters, i. The filters may be used in combination, each filter reducing the exposure of a certain layer of the positive.
The colours of the filters will then have the same meaning or sign. Thus a yellow filter corrects a yellow hue, and a blue filter, composed of a cyan and a magenta, corrects a blue hue. The range of filter densities was determined by the following method: a yellow, a magenta and a cyan filter are combined and the light source identical to the printing source viewed through the combination.
The respective densities of the filters are altered until a neutral grey is obtained having a density of The three filters so determined are arbitrarily assigned a value of The values of all the other filters are decimal fractions of the calibration filters. Six figures are employed. The first two designate the concentration of the yellow filter, the middle two that of the magenta filter, and the last two figures refer to the cyan filter.
For example, 30 90 means: no yellow filter, a 30 per cent magenta filter and a 90 per cent, cyan filter. These figures can be added or subtracted. When changing over to a new positive batch, the filter value of this material has to be subtracted, for example:. Usually 10 steps of each filter colour are ample, but occasionally 5 per cent, steps are used.
Thus 30 filters comprise a complete set. A set of filters of the values 10, 20, 30 and 50 would yield every possible combination. The Continental laboratories made use of the well-known Debrie diaphragm strip. In this machine the volume of fight is controlled by means of circular holes in a paper strip. The filter foils are attached over the holes with light metal clips. The size of hole controls the total fight volume or a neutral grey may be added to the colour filter Fig.
In practical printing filter numbers for each scene must be ascertained by direct testing. Experience showed that with a single frame light change covering every combination, the most satisfactory grading system was to provide a ribbon control carrying not only a series of diaphragm widths but also all combinations of the filter numbers 30, 60 and 90 consisting of 47 frames for ten diaphragm steps:.
From the developed test print, the most neutral frame can be selected with ease, and from the diaphragm series the optimum printing fight can be determined. Next on a fine control ribbon all combinations are recorded in ten steps centred on the most neutral setting. For a rough filter value of 60 60 00 these values are:. The writer is unaware of whether or not it is the practice to correct the colour balance of a motion picture print by a subsequent bath intended to reduce one of the three subtractive primaries.
If the excess is red, green or blue, then baths must be successively used of yellow and magenta reducers, cyan and yellow, or magenta and cyan. Apparently two filters are occasionally employed for a brief period should operation demand it. For direct illumination Agfa No. The latter position was selected for the maximum transmission of the safelight filter, owing to high sensitivity of the retina in this region, and resolving power is also higher than for red or green light. It is better to have high visual acuity in the darkroom than high illumination.
While filters can be made which transmit light of a narrow wavelength band in the yellow region they are not efficient. These safelights must be mechanically air-cooled. Using two filters of 20 x 30 cm. The safety margin for Agfacolor positive is 30 minutes. The German technicians do not seem to have used a special illuminant in printing machines. A system of combination of light sources such as has been successfully used for the printing of Dufaycolor would seem to present valuable advantages. This consists in the mixture of light given by: A.
The combined radiation consists of:. This lamp has now been standardized and its relative output of radiation should be constant after the lamp has been run continuously for 75 hours. During this ageing period it is quite possible that the line spectral emission ratio varies to a minor extent, but no data is available. It is proposed by Dufay-Chromex Ltd.
On theoretical grounds there are good reasons to expect a marked improvement over the previously employed system. Published by the U. Agfacolor Sensitizers and Colour Couplers. Chemical Formulae. We give below the formulae of the principal sensitizers and colour couplers used for Agfacolor negative and positive films:—. Paul Keck, formerly of Zeiss. This is a very interesting report upon some colorimetric work carried out in Germany on reproduction deviations found in the reproduction of colours by the Agfacolor films.
After a review of modern colorimetrical methods, he sums up the mathematical formulation of the problem of colour photography by A. Hardy, F. Wurzburg and others, in this next statement. Schultze and H. Hoermann of Agfa, Wolfen. Keck quotes from an unpublished paper by these authors. They calculated the reproduction of three different sets of samples:. The Oswald eight full colours. Eight saturated pigment samples from the Baumann-Prase Atlas. Eight spectrum wavebands of constant luminance. Generally the tristimulus values give the worst results.
Here the RUCS distance was only , and for the pigments Sensitivities with large overlapping spectral curves give poor reproduction. This is especially true for the tristimulus values of the spectrum used as sensitivities. Sensitivity curves calculated according to Hardy and Wurzburg give very good results if the negative parts, as well as the overlapping sections, are neglected. The reproduction is almost as good as before when optimum colours are used which do not cover the whole visible wavelength range.
The best colour reproductions result in average deviations from in the RUCS system. Red and magenta chromaticities in general give rise to the largest differences and yellow hues correspond to the smallest ones. The same authors have published measurements on colour reproduction by Agfacolor reversal film of a set of 12 highly saturated filters. The niters were also reproduced on Agfacolor Reversal Tungsten Type. Dominant wavelength and colorimetric purity of the originals and reproductions were measured.
The colorimetric purity values were transformed into excitation purity. For the 12 selected samples the dominant wavelengths and excitation purities are given in the accompanying Table The values under Dl and D2 refer to two exposures in daylight and A refers to the exposure to tungsten light. The distortions are serious, especially with blue and violet hues.
As far as luminance is concerned the transparency of the reproduction is always less than that of the original filter. The same authors measured the reproduction chromaticities of the same 12 filters as reproduced by the Agfacolor negative-positive process and also obtained comparison reproductions by printing Agfacolor positive with three separation negatives exposed through Agfa tricolor filters 40, 41 and The light source was ICI—A. Narrow-cut tricolor filters were used for printing.
The reproduction of blue and violet filters i, k and l, display larger deviation than did the reversal film. The print made from the separation negatives was little better. Eight pigments of high saturation in the Baumann-Prase Color Atlas were reproduced by the reversal and by the negative-positive process. Results are given in the following Table. Note the dominant wavelength of No. The reproduction of No. On the other hand No.
In general, the Agfacolor process gave deviations about twice as great as by the best an additive system could yield.
Reversal was slightly superior to negative-positive. This is an interesting question and there is not much data yet to help us to come to reliable conclusions. Masking is a pastime for mathematicians. The writer is firmly convinced that up to the present, a set of separation negatives represents by far the most reliable and accurate foundation. Beam-splitter cameras are expensive, cumbersome, and delicate, but they give the technician an odd feeling of security after experience of the vagaries of monopack. Nevertheless negative-positive processes, such as Agfacolor, have their proper field of application and we must hope that one of the manufacturers will shortly revive its production.
In the meantime physicists are welcome to cover pages with their symbols to prove that something can be done on paper which cannot be done in the laboratory. Brock, who visited the Agfa film factory in June , stated in the report C. Trip No. Final Report No. London, H. Stationery Office. Report No. Farben, Agfa Subsidiary Wolfen. Ranger and others, Jan. Final Reports Nos. Rose and Br. White T. Note: B. Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian : Colour Cinematography. This criticism based on the fact that Ryan did not mention Agfacolor.
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Only the American author James L. Limbacher gave some information on Agfacolor and listed many titles of feature films in his book Four Aspects of the Film New York Actually the history of Agfacolor is fairly unknown in the U. Agfacolor was introduced by the German Agfa company in — now 60 years ago. Before that Agfa had started manufacturing a photographic color reversal film Agfacolor-Neu in November , only three months after the introduction of the first Kodachrome slide film in the U.
(DOC) Volksgemeinschaft Engineers: The Nazi 'Voyages of Technology' | John GUSE - xowajene.tk
During the second world war the Third Reich used the Agfacolor stock for 13 full-length completed color features. Principally Eastman Color is based on the same idea of multilayer color film but uses different color couplers for the dye generation. The article of Gert Koshofer, former employee of Agfa-Gevaert and past Secretary General of the German Photographic Society, covers both the technical and the contemporary history of the German invention Agfacolor.
The motion picture industry used it under the different political conditions of national socialism, East-bound communism in East Germany and West-bound democracy in West Germany. Its first use for a feature film production was for the UFA movie Frauen sind doch bessere Diplomaten i.
After a lot of problems with the new film medium, especially with different color temparatures during the day on location, this film was first shown in Berlin on 31st October It was a big success in the public, but suffered from some deficiencies as critisized by experts. Before that time there had been no full-length color feature in Germany. As forerunners of Agfacolor served here two-color systems like Ufacolor Agfa Bipack System , the three-color printing process of Gasparcolor and the complicated Agfa Pantachrom system. These color processes were only used for short subjects like documentaries and advertising films — the German producers were too angry to make their color films with such inadequate and awkward systems, which required special equipment like bipack cameras.
The Beauty Spot. But Agfacolor conquered them all by its relatively simple method using normal movie cameras, a printing process similar to black and white films and common cinema projectors. This was a real sensation compared with Technicolor, which at that time required the special beam-splitter camera and the lavish imbition dye transfer printing process.
The development and introduction of Agfacolor had been driven forward by the German government, especially by the nazi propaganda minister Josef Goebbels who was very interested that the German film production could soon compete with Hollywood in the field of color cinematography. The Golden City to be made in Agfacolor. In dose cooperation with his director of photography Bruno Mondi Harlan perfected the technique and style of German color movies during war time.
This work culminated in the propaganda feature Kolberg with great historical battle scenes, carried out by , Wehrmacht soldiers and 4, mariners. But the other Agfacolor features of the Third Reich were harmless dramas and musical entertainment subjects. They gained great box-office success in all neutral, occupied or allied European countries.
Woman Of My Dreams in Agfacolor also had the purpose to cheer up the public as a political issue. Both these films still today show the charm of early Agfacolor color style, especially in landscapes. Great Freedom No. This film was, for political reasons, forbidden by Goebbels for showings in Germany. It was first shown in Prague, where towards the end of the war German and Austrian film producers preferred to work in the Czech Barrandov studios, which were safe against bomb raids of the Allied air-forces and were equipped for color processing.
Three further feature films have been not been completely finished before the end of the war. Besides of the feature films some 50 documentaries had been produced in Agfacolor until the end of the war. By order of Goebbels the Deutsche Wochenschau German Newsreel also shot a lot of scenes in color, especially in the Russian front line. Especially for propaganda purposes in foreign countries an Agfacolor newsreel program entitled Panorama was compiled in Even Adolf Hitler appeared in Agfacolor, mostly in the private narrow-gauge films by his mistress Eva Braun and by his pilot Hans Baur.
The German patents lost their protecting function outside of Germany. In reality an Agfacolor feature has never been produced in England, whereas the first post-war color feature in France was the Agfacolor production Le Mariage de Ramuntcho i. But first of all the Soviet Union stood to gain from Agfacolor because the Wolfen film factory was located in their occupation zone of Germany.
It continued the manufacturing of Agfacolor films since the autumn of and then became a state-owned company of the Russians until The first full-length Russian Agfacolor feature The Stone Flower , a colorful fairytale, was produced in in the Barrandov studios. The Agfacolor stock served also the film productions of Czechoslovacia, Hungary and Poland. But most of the Austrian color films until the sixties have been produced in Agfacolor of West German origin.
This was the famous place, where the first and most of the great color features during the war time were originated in. In contrast to the DEFA, which has been provided with raw stock by the East German Wolfen factory, the West German motion picture companies since got its material under the same brand from the new established Agfa film factory in the West German Bayer facilities of Leverkusen. More than Agfacolor feature movies were produced with the Leverkusen materials, including a lot of films in Japan, where the famous director Yasujiro Ozu preferred this color negative film. DEFA produced 45 Agfacolor films, including many fairytales, during the period The new combine decided to discontinue the manufacturing of Agfacolor materials in favour of Gevacolor because of the responsibility of the Belgian part of the group for professional motion picture products , but did not end it before The last negative type CN5 was a relative high speed ASA 80 material with partly doublelayer structure.
The great task of Agfa was to develop a color negative film, which could compete with Kodak Eastman Color being in use in West German film studios and print labs since — initially besides the Agfacolor-derivate Gevacolor. The main problem of Agfacolor and early Gevacolor was that these negatives were not color-masked like Eastman Color and could not being handled by the same process, that means using Kodak chemistry. Another task was to reach the high film speed of the Kodak films.