The question is being asked, why we should continue with the current form of literature. Each new technology must find in social life, a cultural space, in order to have any meaningful social impact. Social media and online communication is believed to be having adverse effect on social skills and communication among adolescents. Phones should be put away during class or while driving. The most inspiring aspect of technology is its ability to reach audiences all over the world. The article Impact of Technology on Politics attempts to analyze how these two spheres of modern life, technology and politics, interrelate and what the outcomes are of this interrelationship.
Gaming is an instance where you may encounter potentially serious social setbacks. In the past, cultural collisions caused by slavery, exploration, and war have pushed them even further, says Columbia University linguist John McWhorter. Technology has been the effect of community mediation and construction. Negative Effects of Fashion on Students Besides the positive effects, there are also a lot of negative effects that are associated with the fashion rage among the students. Finally, teens need to utilize proper English grammar as much as possible during formal writing assignments.
But the availability of technological tools alone is not sufficient to improve achievement. We know this is an important positive impact of technology. The Effect of Technology on Learning As technology has advanced we have begun to use this technology as a learning aid, but is it really helping us or is it hurting us in the long run. When asked what impact using laptops had on their The Impact of Technology on Teenagers.
The effects are greatest on younger children. Sahandri Gani B. Pros: The Positive Side of Technology for Children Updating the Classroom There have been several studies on the positive educational impact that technology has on students as young as kindergarteners. The impact is discussed that digital technology, including social media media and the Internet, may have on the development of our reading skills and on learning. Globalization is not a whole new concept. Text speak, rather than harming literacy, could have a positive effect on the way children interact with language, says a study.
Digital technology has become an increasingly popular means of communication; however, there are worries that this trend is having a detrimental effect on the writing skills of students. Technology can be a powerful tool, but is it always the best way to learn. Even when you are conveying unpleasant news, the impact can be softened by the use of what we call positive language.
Nowadays, children do not get enough exercise. The purposive selection of districts may limit the degree to which these findings can be generalized to other districts. However, it has negative effects on physical and mental health. Detail 4. However, the overuse of technology can lead to a sedentary lifestyle and causes issues with behavior, development and the learning process.
Generally, online programs offered more comprehensive content, teaching more key literacy skills than offline software in Kindergarten and Grade 1 levels. The combined effect of these impacts, according to this group of AP and NWP teachers, is a greater investment among students in what they write and greater engagement in the writing process.
Although now there is considerable research that points to the positive effects of technology on children's learning and development Clements , the research indicates that, in practice, computers supplement and do not replace highly valued early childhood activities and materials, such as art, blocks, sand, water, books, exploration with writing materials, and dramatic play.
Advantage: Speed and Efficiency. Electronic devices and gadgets may benefit children, but they can also be harmful. Awareness of the consequences and trying alternatives will help teens enjoy technology advancements in a positive manner. Parents, teachers and students are learning a new kind of communication through social media. In most While texting may seem like nothing more than another distraction for our fast-paced youth, it turns out this rapid means of communication may be more than just a nuisance.
Language is an exceedingly powerful tool. According to Dr. Researchers found that reading, verbal fluency and intelligence were improved in a study of people tested either aged 11 or in their seventies. To get the best of digital devices, parents have to consider its downsides and prevent them. The positive outcome of technology is that the access to information and the ease of producing academic work of quality will always be available. Technology has a great deal to say about how we communicate with each other online.
Accordingly, technology has become an important role in the field of language education. In contrast, negative communication skills makes you come across as rude and uninterested. The Typewriter: A remarkable impact on communication. The English language was very changed by the oldest messaging applications that were messenger, hi5, etc. The prevalence of technology affects society in so many positive ways, and that includes the education sector. Today's computers have changed the lives of children of all ages. Nowadays, the world is enchanted with what new information technology has made possible to the point that the world has become digitally controlled.
The way we use technology determines if its impacts are positive to the society or negative. Position Statement Technology has a positive impact on student learning. The impact of technology and texting on students is immeasurable. With the rapid development of science and technology, the emerging and developing of multimedia technology and its application to teaching, featuring audio, visual, animation effects comes into full play in English class teaching and sets a favorable platform for reform and exploration on English teaching model in the new era.
Communication technology is composed of many forms of electronic communication. The positive impact of ICT on education: On the positive side, the use of ICT in education can provide opportunities that might not otherwise exist, such as: 1. Rapidly growing influence of technology has altered the way in which we live and think. Transcript of The positive and negative effects of Technology on Language.
The positive and negative effects of Technology on Language. The world is getting smaller, and through the use of technology such as social media, the way we deliver instruction is changing. Positive communication skills make you seem friendly, smart and helpful. Although these previous examples only show a few of the positive aspects of technology in society, there are negative side effects as well. English experiences huge changes due to social networks. Students of the 21st century have the unique chance of being able to obtain all the data available from around the world to create real-life learning experiences.
Over time, languages naturally change. Positive Impact of Technology On Education.
In another study conducted by Ilter , it was reported that technology has a positive effect on children"s language awareness when it is used appropriately. Whether in a car seat engineered for safety, in a room with music or television, or observing a parent speaking on the telephone, babies interact with a world driven by technology. Students have learned, through extensive use of technology, to rely on automation rather than knowledge of correct language usage. There are also concerns that there is a great impact of technology on the language and literacy development of children.
Research has been conducted in how gadgets impact on cognitive and motor skills of children. A Brief Overview of Our Project. The population in this study was largely limited to Spanish speakers, so the effects of bilingual programs may be different for students with other language backgrounds. Because of the arrival of new technologies rapidly occurring globally, technology is relevant to the Technology can have positive and negative impact on social interactions This is an excerpt from Dimensions of Leisure for Life by Human Kinetics. Technology can easily be overused within the classroom, and this can cause negative effects on the entire learning experience.
Globalization is the movement of goods, products and business from the boundaries of one Nation to the boundaries of another Nation. Effects of Technology on Literacy Skills and Motivation 5 introducing digital literacies will not only be familiar to them but will also engage them in the present providing them with a rich literacy experience.
I agree that media and communication technology have a positive and a negative influence on cultural diversity and individual identity but the positive out weighs the negative impact. Fact Sheet. In the media, from the simplest to the most complex, at any time from the unique circumstances of the elite when the easy access technology, its impact is even when computers and the Internet are used in class ICT has a strong motivational effect and positive effects on behaviour, communication and process skills.
Social media has had a tremendous effect on the English language and how we communicate. Recent Research Results. Findings suggest that technology has a negative effect on both the quality and quantity of face-to-face communication. Canadian children watch excessive amounts of television 5,6. Similarly, cultural barriers are broken down with the use of internet and mobile technology, with distance and isolation no longer being relevant.
In the classroom, negatives out way the positive effects. It is the interaction and integration of people, tradition, ideas and cultures among the Nations of the World. I feel it is negative because this technologies create techno- isolation among people which makes people less involved and ight lead to asimilation if you were However, technology can also have negative effects on a business, making communication more impersonal and creating a false sense of knowledge.
English as become the dominant language, across the world. Regular use of computers can have an effect on student performance on standardized tests, according to a new study by researchers at Boston College and the University of Massachusetts at Lowell. Some language researchers argue that language is deteriorating due to increased use in electronic communication. Advances such as email, instant messaging, and social media were all created to make communication easier and more convenient. For all the positive effects of a technology-enriched learning environment, some negative aspects have developed along with modern technology.
Technology has done a great deal to change what we came to rely upon. February 20, Certainly, these fears are very real and as parents, Negative Effects of Technology. English learning software boost. It brings you great gifts with one hand and it stabs you in the back with the other. When used in moderation, it can help students with their studies. There are one or two negative effects for those learning a foreign language.
Learn how text messaging, emailing, instant messaging, and social networking Facebook, MySpace, Twitter have influenced students' grammar and writing abilities. In conclusion, technology has changed education in various ways. Technologies negative impact on Teens. Many online videos teach skills,such as learning a language. And TV? When researchers controlled for the amount of time that kids spent in conversation, the effect of television on children was neither positive nor negative.
Classrooms are therefore more diverse, which has often been perceived as benefiting all The thought experiment continues! Beyond Literacy Radio is a series of podcasts about post-literacy in all its dimensions and implications. All Users must agree in writing on an annual basis, to comply with those policies and procedures. District administration reserves the right to change these rules at any time without notice. Noncompliance with applicable regulations and procedures may result in suspension or termination of User privileges and other disciplinary actions up to and including termination of employees or suspension of students, consistent with the policies of the Ludlow Public Schools.
Violations of law may result in criminal prosecution as well as disciplinary action by the Ludlow Public Schools up to and including termination of employees, or suspension of students. Making the Internet available to students carries with it the potential that some students might encounter information that others have identified as controversial or potentially harmful.
Because the Internet is globally accessible and changes daily, it is not always possible to predict what students may encounter on the Internet. Acceptable uses of ICT tools and resources support our educational goals. The School Committee expects that staff will blend thoughtful use of ICT tools throughout the curriculum and that the staff will provide guidance and instruction to students as they develop new skills in digital and media literacies.
You understand that you are responsible for all activities done through your account s. The 'Starting School Research Project' at the University of Western Sydney recently conducted research into what parents, teachers and students saw as important attributes for children starting school, or making the transition from preschool to primary school. The project surveyed parents, teachers and students, and found that there were eight areas which all three groups emphasised as important.
These included: knowledge; social adjustment to the school context; skills tying shoelaces, holding a pencil ; disposition towards school; understanding the necessity for rules; physical attributes health ; family issues; and education environment at school. Each group gave a different weighting to the eight areas, with children emphasing rules, while adults teachers and parents placed more importance on social adjustment. Skills and knowledge were rated low by all groups, including teachers.
The authors of this article have included a list of elements their research indicates as important in any transition to a school program.
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They stress the importance of children's voices and the need to take account of different social contexts when creating suitable transition strategies. As the title of this paper suggests, the author is concerned that school leaders have not, by and large, successfully incorporated 'market centred leadership' into their leadership 'portfolio'. Market centred leadership, Drysdale explains, can be achieved through the use of four frames: the market as philosophy and orientation; the market as a function within the organisation; the market as strategy; and the market as a set of relationships.
While Drysdale firmly and unhesitatingly situates school leadership within marketing theory and acknowledges his debt to that discipline, to his credit, he goes beyond the mantras and explains in an engaging and informative way the application of the four frames. He also reports on an assessment of a sample of schools in areas of Melbourne experiencing profound demographic shifts, which he surveyed to gauge their market centred approaches and their implementation of the four frames.
He concludes that for schools to implement the approach, the attitudes and leadership of the principal are paramount. Morgan looks at the changing role of the school principal in England, from the autocratic and 'spiritual mission' management style of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, through the 'professional and pedagogically progressive mission' phase of the post-war period, to the market-oriented and chief executive role of the present.
His aim is to gauge whether the new market focus of the role of head and the rise of Senior Management Teams have seen a usurpation of the authority of the office. After assessing the available literature on leadership in schools, and drawing on a survey of Senior Management Teams in schools in South-East London, he concludes that while the latter have changed the leadership style of heads, their existence has not undermined the authority of the role, and, in fact, may have strengthened it to deal with the new requirements of school governance.
It objects, particularly, to the concept of a 'complementary solution' to the problem of LOTE teacher supply by using ethnic private schools to fill the shortfall, and to the notion of secondary school 'centres of excellence' which it sees as divisive and elitist. The former is available on the Australian Education Union website. Working from the premise that gender is a social construct ie that it is learned behaviour, learned roles and assigned to the sexes , this article demonstrates how gender roles are perpetuated in children's literature. Through a survey of that literature, it estimated that males were more frequently depicted as capable, active and independent, while female characters were portrayed as passive, dependent and performing household tasks.
To counter this phenomenon, the authors have produced a list of books which treat gender roles in a more complex fashion and a checklist whereby teachers and parents can assess children's books for gender bias. In a thought-provoking and informative article, McCrindle defines 'generation y' - those born between and - by their values, influences and motivations. It is this generation which now populates schools. McCrindle asserts that teachers and school leaders need to understand how to communicate with generation 'y' if they are to be effective in the education of these students. Noting the increase in the proportion of school principals who do not serve out the length of their contracts at schools, Millikan examines the relationship between school heads and school boards so as to bring greater clarity to the specific roles of both.
His article clearly delineates the roles of members of the school board and that of the principal by describing the scope of the roles and attaching specific duties to each of them. For example, he sees school boards as performing the overall role of school governance which involves overseeing the employment and appraisal of the principal; the fiscal situation of the school; and the overview of the schools mission. Principals, on the other hand, should be left to manage the learning environment; manage their staff and students; ensure the professional development of staff; and implement the board's policies.
This article provides a step-by-step approach to planning and managing the 'change process' in schools. Demonstrating, by means of a case study, the connection between the school's mission and articulated vision, and the 'faculty plan', it shows school principals how to give effect and practical meaning to those initial lofty ideals. It claims that the Curriculum Evaluation of demonstrated that there was still a lot of confusion about schools' responsibilities in this area. The SSTUWA has advanced a six-point plan to address the situation which includes resourcing and support to make sense of the levels across the WA system, professional development to assist teachers develop assessment strategies which conform to the Curriculum Framework's requirements, and a review of curriculum policy.
Although this article is addressed to teachers in the United States, much of it will be relevant to teachers outside of that country. The authors situate Global Education within its philosophical and pedagogical contexts, and provide practical advice to help teachers integrate it with the perspectives and voices of women from around the world. One way in which this can be achieved is to recognise the lack of understanding of other cultures among students, and to remedy this by confronting stereotypes. Other approaches suggested by the authors are: introducing multiple perspectives using primary documents, teaching about the power dimensions of prejudices and providing students with opportunities for cross-cultural experiential learning.
Working from the premise that students' beliefs about scientific inquiry influence their approaches to scientific learning, this United States study examined the beliefs held by students about the discipline as well as their learning strategies. It found that there was, while complicated, a correlation between students' conception of scientific knowledge eg tentative, contested or factual and their learning strategies eg understanding or memorising; autonomous or dependent , and that this had profound implications for science pedagogy.
In this paper, Cotter brings an overarching philosophical presence to the kinds of tensions with which school communities find themselves grappling. Noting that schools have arrived at the juncture of two models of society, that is, the individual-oriented, contractual and market-driven model and the community or communitarian model, Cotter makes the argument for the legitimacy and relevance of the latter, with its values of unconditional generosity, self-sacrifice and service.
He observes that schools, while increasingly besieged by the 'external model' of society based on contractual relations, are still based on 'covenants', the kinds of unconditional relationships found in families. It is in these kinds of communities, with their emphasis on generosity and service, that skills such as emotional intelligence and social capital, valued by organisations with a more market vision of the world, are fostered. Cotter's paper is both thought provoking and inspirational, as it contains a synthesis of the relevant literature, and a sprinkling of 'real-life' scenarios and examples.
But, even more than this, it offers school leaders a theoretical perspective on the organisational tensions operating within schools, gives them a framework within which to articulate that conflict and provides a reasoned argument for the intrinsic values at the heart of schools. Bhindi recognises the social, economic and political environment in which schools have to operate, and notes that now, more than ever, is the time for creative leadership in schools.
Creative leadership, it is asserted, is not the preserve of 'the chosen few', but rather a dormant ability which has its roots in 'passion, commitment and energy', and which needs 'courage, imagination and exploration' for its release. In the interview, Holden recounts his motivations for entering the teaching profession, and outlines his educational philosophy, educational priorities, management style and indicators of success.
David Loader attempts to shift the terrain of the public versus private school debate by arguing that the real argument is about underlying values and not the means by which schools are funded. Schools can be deemed 'public', not by the way they are funded, but by whether they subscribe to a set of values which are perceived to be 'public values'. To arrive at this set of values Loader uses Brian Caldwell's Scenarios for Leadership and the Public Good in Education in which the principles of choice, equity, access, efficiency, economic growth and harmony are outlined as elements of the public good.
This shift towards values, it is argued, allows for a more accurate evaluation of the success of schools and for a more meaningful focus on ends instead of means. In this article she reports on how the efforts of teaching staff over a three-year period to 'describe the best classroom' have lead to a new and innovative building, a new philosophy on classroom practice - encapsulated in the document 'The Landscape for Learning' - and linked subjects which facilitate interdisciplinary learning.
She concludes, therefore, that some of the ingredients which go into creating a quality learning environment are: an educational philosophy that is owned by teachers and which values students' experiences; and a flexible building that allows for experimentation and does not inhibit choice. Acknowledging the plethora of 'values' and other moral guidance education programs now available to school students in the United States, Weissbourd seeks to recognise the role of teachers in students' moral development and argues the case for helping teachers to be more effective in this role.
Far from introducing yet another program, Weissbourd identifies disillusionment and depression as reasons for teachers not fulfilling this role. He asserts that teachers often become disillusioned about their capacity to make a difference in students' lives, and that this can often lead to a sense of hopelessness and 'passivity'.
Helping teachers to better manage students' behavioural problems, assisting them in recognising signs of depression in themselves, instituting a mentoring strategy and allowing teachers time to reflect on their work are just some of the ways in which they become more enthusiastic and more effective as teachers and, as a consequence, better at shaping the moral development of those who often admire them most - their students. The taskforce will report to the Commonwealth Minister for Education, Science and Training on the issues of teacher training and professional standards for the profession.
The AEU's position is that standards should only apply to those entering the profession and should be generic; that any standards framework should be 'owned' by the teaching profession; that teaching standards should not be linked to student outcomes, which are affected by a range of variables not just teacher quality; and that standards should not be linked to performance management. His article provides an insight into one of the key initiatives in British education - the Blair Government's Investment for Reform program.
Hart sees this program, a shift away from centralisation and towards self-managing schools, as an opportunity for 'transformational, pioneering and ambitious leaders' to re-model their schools. He makes the plea that governments should unshackle schools and not drown them in bureaucratic red tape or have them balancing too may competing priorities. He cautions, however, that Heads should not lose sight of the 'vital role of schools' in communities. Among other things this role includes the development of the knowledge and skills of young people, maintaining schools as 'oases of calm' in young people's lives and social inclusion in an increasingly competitive environment.
Using the metaphor of travel, Greene asks school principals and leaders to consider why they have not successfully implemented the reforms they initially intended to achieve. By example, Green lists a series of measures implemented in schools which are anachronistic and of no real benefit to students. Some of these include: the concept of work experience for Year 10 students in an age of apprenticeships and adolescent part-time work; age cohort structuring of classes when it is widely recognised that students do not achieve the same outcomes at the same time; and using form groups as a kind of pastoral care.
He encourages principals to break with the past, as it is the 'excess baggage' of the old curriculum which often inhibits the achievements of the new. St Bedes Catholic College in Victoria is fortunate enough to have a full-time attendance officer at the school. Brother Brendan Crowe, a teacher of 27 years experience, implemented a computerised attendance register which is cross-referenced with parents' absentee notifications by 9. While intended as a deterrent, it allows the school to stop the habit of truancy in its tracks, and to recognise cries for help of which truancy is often a manifestation.
Students are initially counselled by Brother Brendan, and those considered to be at risk are referred to the school counsellor.
After noticing a drop-off in boys' academic achievement and engagement at Year 3, the school started to address the situation with activities directed towards 'real world' outcomes such as their 'Making it real to make it work' program. Coincidence would have it that a teaching fellow from the United State was due to be hosted by the school. Noticing the similarities in what the school was trying to achieve and the Tribes initiative she was trained in, the teacher recommended it to the school. The Tribes initiative involves small group work which sees students assigned to a group for a year.
The groups are of mixed abilities so that students are compelled to recognise individual attributes.
This allows the five principles of the Tribes Agreement to come into play, which include attentive listening, appreciation, a right to pass not to participate in some activities , mutual respect and personal best. Agterhuis has noticed the changes in both the communication skills and self-esteem of the boys, as well as an appropriation of the principles of Tribes in their vocabulary and attitudes.
The rural community of Goondiwindi in south-west Queensland had a convergence of problems: the retention rate at the local high school was falling, and local rural industries could not find enough high school graduates to employ. Goodiwindi High School and local business decided to co-ordinate to solve their problems simultaneously. Together, the two programs have increased the school retention rate from Dixon implores teachers to 'get competent' with computers so that they can unleash the true learning potential of this, not so new, technology. Recognising that it has taken 35 years for computers to enter the classroom, and lamenting the fact that the vast majority of students still do not have school-based access to computers, he points out that teachers' attitudes and fears about their roles should not be an added obstacle to creating an exciting learning environment with computers - 'the instrument of ideas'.
Using the area of 'special education' as a case study for a wider theoretical statement, the author of this paper promotes a 'dilemmatic' approach to advancing education debates. He argues that, as can be seen in the conflict over the appropriate models and nomenclature in the area of special education, debates in education are often value laden and present options which, regardless of the paths taken, have negative outcomes.
The social model of inclusion versus the individual needs model in special education is seen as representative of this kind of 'dilemmatic' situation. The way forward is to recognise the conflicting 'multiple values' the ambiguity and contradictions and to produce creative solutions which attempt to fulfill some values while not jeopardising the attainment of others.
In the above example, this would be recognising that the values of social inclusion should not override the need for an accommodation and recognition of individual needs and difference. With the increased pressure for schools to adopt a market approach to their work processes and resourcing has come many opportunities, but also stresses. This paper, primarily based on the recent British school reforms, surveyed the academic literature and data to weigh its hypotheses on the psychological wellbeing of school principals in the new era of 'marketisation of schools'.
Its findings call for more quantitative research to be conducted on the subject but, more importantly, the paper gives a clear analytical breakdown of the kinds of factors which lead to job satisfaction and self-renewal, as well as those in some cases the same factors leading to stress and burnout. This thoughtful and well-researched paper is a summary of an address given at the Australian Women Speak conference.
Harris uses the core themes identified by the Commonwealth Government's Office for the Status of Women - economic self-support and security, optimal status and position, elimination of violence and maintenance of good health - as the organising principles for her description and explanation of the circumstances of young Australian women today. She notes that young Australian women are increasingly finding themselves in a paradoxical situation - on the one hand with more opportunities than their peers a generation before, yet facing increased social and economic pressures on the other.
Many aspire to motherhood before thirty-five and economic independence. But, while increasing numbers of young women have found their way to tertiary education, they still do not do as well with their credentials as young males, and those who do not go on to further study are less likely to find themselves in full-time work. The study on which this paper is based drew on students, their teachers and parents, from 22 Brisbane schools. Through a series of surveys, it found that there was an adverse correlation between socio-economic status and 'temperamental aggression' - a category of aggression which excludes bullying.
The authors contended that aggression was more likely to be exhibited in students who had inflated perceptions of their academic competencies, and who thus demonstrated a lack of maturation, a developmental trait usually associated with adolescents from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds. Connell takes a nostalgic, yet insightful, journey back to the time and issues which inspired Making the Difference Connell et al, , the ground-breaking publication on educational equity in Australia.
A by-product of this journey is a thought provoking survey of the last 20 years of the politics of Australian education. Mindful of what he terms the 'neoliberal' or economic rationalist dominance of the education debate, he refocuses attention to issues of class and gender inequality which, he contends, far from being solved, have become entrenched in Australian education and educational outcomes. Michael Apple reflects on the effects September 11 had on the his teaching personally, and on the implications for a critical pedagogy generally.
He draws attention to what he sees as an 'authoritarian populism' which has emerged in the United States in the wake of September 11, and ponders the implications of this for a hidden curriculum of uncritical patriotism. The package is aimed at combating truancy by obliging schools to create 'Attendance Improvement Plans' to encourage students to maintain their school attendance.
Some schools have already introduced innovative initiatives which have met with some success. Professor Slee explains the aims of the Education Queensland reform agenda, as contained in Queensland State Education , against the background of its over-arching aim - 'redesigning schooling'. Some of the measures include creating a curriculum that is both relevant and engaging, examining and promoting good pedagogy and fostering a culture of inclusivity in educational practices and school environments. The Third International Mathematics and Science Study - Repeat, under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, demonstrated that Australian Year 8 and 9 students' mathematics and science competencies were among the best internationally.
The assessment, conducted in Australia by the Australian Council for Education Research ACER , had Australian students performing above the average in both science and mathematics, with 19 per cent of Australian students making up the top 10 per cent in science, and 12 per cent in the top 10 per cent in mathematics.
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While based on American experience, this article is a useful reminder to Australian curriculum leaders of the need to have policies and procedures in place to deal with challenges to books held in school libraries. It points out that the absence of such policies and procedures may lead to 'knee-jerk reactions' which neither consider students' educational requirements or the appropriateness of the resource. A number of teachers who have recently graduated in southern states are now teaching in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory.
They face problems such as high rates of student absenteeism, separation from their families, and the isolation of the communities. Today's educational leader must add the roles of manager, marketer and entrepreneur to their more traditional duties, and they must be able to train others to lead. Their role is also likely to involve collaboration with other senior staff who specialise in one or more aspects of school leadership.
Recruitment to school leadership positions can therefore be based on potential rather than achievements, with new leaders trained and helped by more experienced peers. A range of school leaders offer opinions. The authors report on the results of a random survey sent to primary schools in New South Wales in , designed to identify the most important factors that made novice teachers confident to teach science and technology. The factors that new teachers rated most highly included: units on how to teach science and technology in their tertiary training; teaching practice and observation sessions during block practicums at schools; and the experience of teaching science and technology in their first year out.
The teachers rated their own prior education in science and technology content as a minor factor. Respondents indicated the need for more help from colleagues during first year of teaching. The results are seen to apply to novice secondary science teachers, too. Earlier research work is provided as context. Schools are familiar architectural designs to many people, and, perhaps, they should not be.
Even though educational practices and student learning needs have changed many times over in the last fifty years, many school buildings are still designed according to the standard model - two rows of classrooms separated by a corridor. This article points out that even though financial constraints are overriding considerations in school design, many educators are also unaware of the impact of building design on learning. It provides a few North American examples of how better building design has successfully transformed teacher and student learning, and urges educators to become more aware of their use of space and its impact on teaching.
Mathematics in Indigenous Contexts K-6 is a project which aims to develop culturally appropriate teaching units to assist Indigenous students to achieve numeracy outcomes in New South Wales.
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This article is a brief description of the work of two primary schools - Crawford Public School and Walhallow Public School - in involving the local community and parents in the development of the mathematics units. The Office of the Board of Studies has collated the units developed by the schools, and will host them on an interactive website to help other schools emulate the work of the Crawford and Walhallow Public Schools in their endeavours to improve the numeracy outcomes for Indigenous students. The March edition of the Board Bulletin reported on a project being undertaken to identify issues and areas of support for primary teachers in delivering the K-6 syllabuses.
The project had surveyed 40 primary schools and received responses. These responses were categorised into five areas: use of existing syllabuses; comments on outcomes; comments on Key Learning Areas; comments on assessment; and other issues and recommendations. A second progress report appeared in the May edition of the Board Bulletin. This edition of AEU News contains a feature story on teaching and schools in two rural communities in western Victoria - Ararat and Stawell. Teachers and principals of both primary and secondary schools share their stories of life and teaching in rural communities including issues such as resourcing, professional development, fundraising, school issues and workplace concerns.
In New South Wales, nine new public schools are to be built and maintained by a private consortium in a public-private partnership similar to that in operation in Britain. Questioning the motivations of both the government and the private sector, Fiona Sexton suggests that this may be yet another step towards privatising education services and that public-private partnerships have not been as successful overseas as first imagined.
The longitudinal study, Achievement in Literacy and Numeracy by Australian Fourteen-year-olds, , managed by the Department of Education Science and Training and the Australian Council of Educational Research, has shown that the effect of socio-economic status on student learning over that period has become greater. While the gap between individual students has lessened, schools in which there is a high concentration of students whose parents occupy professional or managerial positions did better overall on comprehension and numeracy tests. The same study found that students from non-English speaking backgrounds had closed the gap in educational attainment measurements and that there was not a marked difference in educational achievement between metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools.
The widening gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous achievement, however, was still evident. Information literacy - the ability to recognise when information is needed and how to access, evaluate and apply it - is becoming more widely recognised in school curricula, higher education and adult learning. The current debate over literacy and reading has been oversimplified into a choice between the phonics and whole of language approaches.
Both methods are necessary. However, while the whole of language approach is well established in schools, only token recognition is given to phonics. Phonics is more than the alphabet and letter sounds, it is 'a structured and sequential program that gives children a set of rules they can use to read almost every word they encounter'.
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Phonics helps to overcome the vocabulary deficit for disadvantaged children, by giving them ways to identify words. Curriculum integration is often supported as a means to advance students' critical thinking, develop their 'big picture' insights into real world issues, and point out connections between different forms of knowledge.
It is also said to encourage constructivist learning and to be seen as relevant by students. These claims have been challenged for lack of supportive evidence from large scale studies. However, a case study of a year-long Year 4 'Enviro' program at the primary school of Geelong College, Victoria, demonstrates that Environmental Education EE offers a valuable way to integrate science with other disciplinary content.
Teachers stimulate students' independent learning about the environment. Projects within the program stimulate the development of deep knowledge in which mathematical and scientific learning is integrated - for example, a project to catch and breed endangered fish requires students to learn about what the fish need and to calculate the amount of water held in fish tanks.
This integrated curriculum has real world relevance, and also allows for the needs of low and high ability learners. Core content for mathematics continues to be taught separately. Janice Padula examines the way children's fiction can be used by enterprising mathematics teachers to create 'contextualised mathematical learning'.
Through fiction, children are able to engage with the context of mathematical thinking, and see its relevance in very day situations. Mathematical language, symbols and concepts can be learned in fun and exciting ways through mathematical fiction. Padula estimates that there are at least ten different kinds of mathematical fiction, which can introduce students to arithmetic, relational terms, sequencing, logic and patterns, to name a few mathematical concepts.
She discusses several works of mathematical fiction and their relevance to identified mathematical concepts in the article. One of the key aims of the project was to place pedagogy back on the Vocational Education and Training agenda. An important outcome of this initiative will be a body of research on pedagogical theories, which will be available online, so that teachers can access research pertaining to their area of teaching and the needs of their students.
The new globalisation 'seeks to attain by force what the older form sought through economic, political and cultural hegemony'. It takes two competing forms: 'religious fundamentalism' is clashing with the armed might of 'imperial fundamentalism', based around military interventions overseas by the world's strongest nation states. Citizenship education in schools, resting on outdated assumptions of social certainty and security, must be adapted to present world conditions. Current efforts to 'teach across borders', through peace, environmental or citizenship education, should inform students about other national traditions as well as their own, and apply concepts such as justice and tolerance to global contexts.
Current efforts to 'teach beyond disciplines' recognise that subjects in the school curriculum rarely incorporate recent advances in disciplinary scholarship, and would not be endorsed by academic experts. These efforts can be extended so that the role of nations in a global society is taught through an issues-based curriculum model that draws on disciplines including History, Economics, Cultural Studies and Political Science. Efforts to 'teach for hope', that currently address problems such as youth disengagement, could be enriched by the concept of 'critical patriotism', emerging in Hong Kong and other parts of Asia.
Citizenship education needs to teach not only about civic institutions such as parliament, but also civil involvement, shown for example in the ability of peace protestors to mobilise millions globally against the Iraq war. Students need to experience civil participation at school, eg through school councils, and to know that civil and civic issues are usually problematic and contested.