La méthode du crocodile (French Edition)

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Zigomar goes on a trip on the back of his friend, a bird. French version of the classic Russian folk tale. Easy French reader by Claude Boujon. Something is different about Madame Pancho's baby. French book for young readers tells the misadventures of a crocodile. Loulou Easy French reader by Gregoire Solotareff. Thierry disobeys his parents and uses the telephone while they are out and stumbles onto a secret society. Browse By. Look around the world. Look at all the turmoil. In China the prices probably went down 20 to 30 percent last year.

I think the foreigners like the idea of having a hotel. The locals like the privacy and the security of not having a hotel. And also, in fairness, One57 was on the market first. So they had the first shot at those people. This last statement made me realize just how tiny a group this is — these foreign billionaires happy to spend tens of millions on New York City apartments they may never visit. In fact, when Lorber asked me who else I had interviewed for the story, and I mentioned Warren Estis, he broke into a huge smile and said: Servcorp, a work space on the 85th floor of 1 World Trade Center.


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Years before he coasted to the Republican nomination on a tide of populist anger, he was the first to give the superrich the chance to purchase these aloof Manhattan palaces in the sky, these physical embodiments of how the extremely wealthy operate at a remove from society. And now, in a way, his campaign is exploiting the rage this divergence has caused.

Trump World Tower was itself constructed amid much acrimony and division — a chaotic and upsetting experience for some neighbors and a bonanza for others. He undertook his maneuver with such stealth that none of the other neighbors, not even Walter Cronkite, knew what was unfolding in their backyards. A Trump executive, Abraham Wallach, responded by reminding the media that Cronkite himself lived in a story high-rise at U. For that reason, I felt concerned about mentioning his name to Estis and Enkin. They are huge fans of his and intend to vote for him. He makes you feel good about yourself.

Looking east from 56 Leonard Street, currently under construction. Trump does like to say things that make people feel good, though the question of their veracity is often tricky. His figure, he told me, came from a 3-D image of the building on Google Earth. The Council on Tall Buildings is a respected source. Trump was probably one of the first builders to skip floor numbers in order to inflate the total count. For Estis and Enkin, the precise altitude of their apartment is ultimately immaterial.

At sunset we sat at a west-facing window. The evening light filled the room, and Enkin had opened a bottle of Champagne. I suddenly remembered recent demonstrations at various Trump-owned skyscrapers across New York City. Insects travel above us in extraordinary numbers. In Britain, the research scientist Jason Chapman uses radar systems aimed into the atmosphere to study their high-altitude movements. Over seven and a half billion can pass over a square mile of English farmland in a single month — about 5, pounds of biomass. Chapman thinks the number passing over New York City may be even higher, because this is a gateway to a continent, not a small island surrounded by cold seas, and summers here are generally hotter.

The tallest buildings, like the Empire State, 1 World Trade Center and other new supertowers, project into airspace that birds have used for millenniums. The city lies on the Atlantic flyway, the route used by hundreds of millions of birds to fly north every spring to their breeding grounds and back again in the fall.

Most small songbirds tend to travel between 3, and 4, feet from the ground, but they vary their altitude depending on the weather. Larger birds fly higher, and some, like shorebirds, may well pass over the city at 10, to 12, feet. Even the tallest buildings dip into only the shallows of the sky. Though you can see migrating raptors soaring at altitudes well over feet over the city during the day, most species of diurnal birds migrate after nightfall.

Temperatures are cooler, and there are fewer predators around. Just before I arrived, Farnsworth saw a peregrine falcon drifting ominously around the building. Peregrines frequently hunt at night here. From high-rise lookout perches, they launch flights out into the darkness to grab birds and bats. The ones here tuck their kills into ledges on high-rises, including the Empire State. For a falcon, a skyscraper is simply a cliff: It brings the same prospects, the same high winds, the same opportunities to stash a takeout meal.

We stare out into the dark, willing life into view. High above us is a suspicion of movement, right at the edge of vision where the sky dissolves into dusty chaos. I swing my binoculars up to my eyes. Three pale pairs of beating wings, flying north-northeast in close formation. I wonder how high they are. We watch them vanish into darkness. I feel less like a naturalist and more like an amateur astronomer waiting for a meteor shower, squinting expectantly into the darkness. I try a new tactic: Through the lenses, birds invisible to the naked eye swim into view, and there are birds above them, and birds higher still.

It strikes me that we are seeing a lot of birds. An awful lot of birds. For every larger bird I see, 30 or more songbirds pass over. They are very small. Watching their passage is almost too moving to bear. They resemble stars, embers, slow tracer fire. Even through binoculars those at higher altitudes are tiny, ghostly points of light. I know that they have loose-clenched toes tucked to their chests, bright eyes, thin bones and a will to fly north that pulls them onward night after night. Most of them spent yesterday in central or southern New Jersey before ascending into darkness.

Larger birds keep flying until dawn. The warblers tend to come earlier to earth, dropping like stones into patches of habitat farther north to rest and feed over the following day. Some, like yellow-rumped warblers, began their long journeys in the southeastern states. Others, like rose-breasted grosbeaks, have made their way up from Central America. Something tugs at my heart.


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Farnsworth pulls out a smartphone. I watch the pixellation blossom on the animated radar map, a blue-and-green dendritic flower billowing out over the whole East Coast. Meteorologists have long known that you can detect animal life by radar. Just after World War II, British radar scientists and Royal Air Force technicians puzzled over mysterious plots and patterns that appeared on their screens.

Now the biologists want to do the reverse.

Reptiles, amphibiens et oiseaux fossiles | Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle

And this new science is helping us understand how climate change, skyscrapers, wind turbines, light pollution and aviation affect the creatures that live and move above us. Ten minutes later, the sky is clear again, and the birds are still flying. We move to the east side of the observation deck.

A saxophonist begins to play, and in concert with this unlikely soundtrack we begin to see birds far closer than before. Though it is overexposed in the light, we detect a smear of black at its chest and a distinctive pattern on its tail: It flickers past and disappears around the corner of the building. A little while later, we see another flying the same way. It dawns on us that it this is the same bird, circling.

Another one joins it, both now drawn helplessly toward and around the light, reeling about the spire as if caught on invisible strings. Watching them dampens our exuberant mood. And these birds have been attracted to it, pulled off course, their exquisite navigational machinery overwhelmed by light, leaving them confused and in considerable danger. After being mesmerized in this way, some birds drag themselves free and continue their journey. New York is among the brightest cities in the world after Las Vegas, only one node in a flood of artificial illumination that runs from Boston down to Washington.

We cherish our cities for their appearance at night, but it takes a terrible toll on migrating songbirds: You can find them dead or exhausted at the foot of high-rise buildings all over America. Disoriented by light and reflections on glass, they crash into obstacles, fly into windows, spiral down to the ground. More than , die each year in New York City alone. We cherish our cities for their appearance at night, but it takes a terrible toll on migrating songbirds.

Reptiles, amphibiens et oiseaux fossiles

They rise four miles into the air and are visible 60 miles from the city. On peak migration nights songbirds spiral down toward them, calling, pulled from the sky, so many circling in the light they look like glittering, whirling specks of paper caught in the wind. Farnsworth was there with the Audubon team that got the lights shut off intermittently to prevent casualties. Each time the lights went back on, a new sweep of birds was drawn in — the twin towers made ghosts of light visited over and over by winged travelers intermittently freed into darkness before a crowd rushed in to take their place.

Farnsworth is a lead scientist in BirdCast, a project that combines a variety of methods — weather data, flight calls, radar, observers on the ground — to predict the movements of migrating birds throughout the continental United States and forecast big nights like this that might require emergency lights-out action. I make my farewell, take the elevator back down the building and wander uphill to my apartment. Part of what high-rise buildings are designed to do is change the way we see. To bring us different views of the world, views intimately linked with prospect and power — to make the invisible visible.

The birds I saw were mostly unidentifiable streaks of light, like thin retinal scratches or splashes of luminous paint on a dark ground. As I look up from street level, the blank sky above seems a very different place, deep and coursing with life. Two days later, I decide to walk in Central Park, and find it full of newer migrants that arrived here at night and stayed to rest and feed.

A black-and-white warbler tacking along a slanted tree trunk deep in the Ramble, a yellow-rumped warbler sallying forth into the bright spring air to grab flies, a black-throated blue warbler so neat and spry he looks like a folded pocket handkerchief. These songbirds are familiar creatures with familiar meanings. Living in a high-rise building bars you from certain ways of interacting with the natural world.

But you are set in another part of their habitual world, a nocturne of ice crystals and cloud and wind and darkness.

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High-rise buildings, symbols of mastery over nature, can work as bridges toward a more complete understanding of the natural world — stitching the sky to the ground, nature to the city. For days afterward, my dreams are full of songbirds, the familiar ones from woods and back lots, but also points of moving light, little astronauts, travelers using the stars to navigate, having fallen to earth for a little while before picking themselves up and moving on. A winter gale enjoys an easy approach to Manhattan from the north-northeast.

As the wind moves over the Hudson River, the waves put up a weak fight against the air at altitude.

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Coming off the water, though, the wind hits the trees and buildings of Hudson Heights, and the mounting obstacles create huge vortices of air that join the increasingly turbulent flow. At West th Street, the wind tumbles into Central Park and then, skimming over oak and beech trees, it picks up speed while some of the great gyres it conveys spin down and vanish. Yet when the wind leaves the park at West 59th Street, it still contains tumultuous traces of its history, of the trees, the buildings and water it has traversed. The wind, it can be said, has memory.

At last, the wind happens upon one of the supertall towers south of the park and reveals a far more wicked talent. If air is moving quickly, these vortices form to a beat, pulling first one way, then the other. The gale is coming out of the north, but this force acts on the perpendicular, along the east-west axis, rocking the structure. The skyscraper would vibrate back and forth, like a guitar string. If it matches the crosswind tugs, the two are in resonance; the oscillations grow, like a child kicking on a swing.

East then west, east then west. With enough structural steel and high-performance concrete, a tower will soar. The more dogged foe is wind. While gravity pulls down, wind can come from any compass point. It can apply pressure or suction, or alternate between the two. The wind, unlike gravity, changes from city to city, from season to season. It is changed by everything it touches, and the wind even shapes itself, with every current pulling on all its neighbors. Gravity is plodding and obvious, but give wind a chance, and it will gather itself together and riot.

At feet, the structure was supported entirely by four nine-story columns, leaving an impressive hollow at its base. The structural engineer William LeMessurier was hailed, but the next year an engineering student pointed out that the building now called Lexington might indeed fall — in a strong-enough wind. Welders rushed to make emergency reinforcements and, with Hurricane Ella threatening, the city contemplated evacuating the area. Ella turned out to sea, though, and Midtown was spared. In the world of tall buildings, a novel kind of specialist has come to prominence: As towers grow taller, they climb into more powerful winds, and lighter construction techniques can leave them more vulnerable.

Developers have begun putting up very slender skyscrapers, like Park Avenue in New York, and these are particularly sensitive to the aerial environment. When a wind engineer like Kelly looks at such a building, he understands that it is airborne, with one end pinned to underlying bedrock, the rest riding the winds of Manhattan. Imagine a one-foot ruler, stood on end and stretched to roughly twice its height. Another favorite weapon of wind confusion, seen on many skyscrapers, is cut corners, which disrupt suction forces along the side.

In the case of Park Avenue, the design team used five gap layers, each two floors in height, where the facade opens to allow air to pass through, sapping vortices. These horizontal bands give the tower a visual rhythm, but they are there because of the wind. In the natural world, wind sculpts sand dunes and cuts the snow, carving rings where it has whipped around a tree. It leaves its marks on buildings too. A tall building can be made eminently safe, capable of withstanding hurricanes and earthquakes, but no amount of beefing up its steel and concrete skeleton can force it to hold still.

Which raises the question: Now they would simulate a penthouse: Through the windows, rolling North Sea waves were replaced with a degree vantage of the city from a suitably astonishing height. The 1,foot Taipei is damped with a ton ball that does double duty as a tourist attraction. From the observation deck, the ball appears to swing in heavy winds, though actually the tourists are also in motion. Hidden at Park Avenue, some 1, tons of combined mass stroke away on two dampers. He rested a laser pointer on the floor, aimed it up and stood back.

The dot wandered as the tower flexed. With high-end damping, most people will not sense motion in normal weather. For supertall residential skyscrapers, tuned mass dampers are the rare luxury amenities that go unseen. Very tall buildings are a recent invention, and the public has not yet developed an intuitive sense for them. The walls, and everything they contain, will always be in motion. Most of the time, this will fall beneath your notice.

Yet someday a storm will come, the wind will riot and you will feel its touch. At issue was a planned building on Columbus Circle by the developer Mortimer B. Zuckerman with and story towers that would cast long shadows on the park. Zuckerman relented and agreed to scale down his design, which eventually became known as the Time Warner Center.

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Onassis said at the time. That means the shadows of the larger of these planned buildings would jut half a mile into the park at midday on the solstice and elongate to around a mile in length as they angled across the park toward the Upper East Side, darkening playgrounds and ball fields, as well as paths and green space like Sheep Meadow that are enjoyed by 38 million visitors each year.

Some damage has already been done. Despite the likely impact these buildings would have on the park, there has been remarkably little public discussion, let alone dissent, about the plans. Many of the buildings are so-called as-of-right developments that do not require the public filing of shadow assessments, which can ignite opposition with their eye-popping renderings of the impact shadows will have on surrounding areas. But New York City has also lost a kind of rabble-rousing infrastructure that once stood up to overzealous developers. The Landmarks Preservation Commission, which approved plans for two of the towers this month, has also ignored the issue of shadows on the park in favor of a narrow concern with the aesthetics of the structures themselves.

There are few New Yorkers around today with the gravitas and magnetism of Jacqueline Onassis to focus public attention on planning issues the way she did for Grand Central Terminal and Columbus Circle. That means New Yorkers who want to protect Central Park will have to do it on their own, by picking up their umbrellas once again and by contacting community boards, politicians, city agencies and the developers themselves, to demand immediate height restrictions south of the park. Miller Jazz Age Manhattan was an electric vessel into which the hopes and desires of a nation were distilled.

As these examples suggest, it is Mr. Miller quotes the editors of Fortune, who coined the term: They like its swift tempo because they are hurrying to absorb more than anyone in a lifetime could touch, let alone understand. Of course, this dream city did not come into existence by itself. Using long tongs, the heater pulled a cherry-red rivet—a small steel cylinder with no threads and one round head—out of the portable oven. Others took risks in less visibly dramatic ways, working themselves to the point of exhaustion or collapse.

Clifford Holland, the Massachusetts-born designer of the tunnel that bears his name, suffered a nervous breakdown and died in a sanitarium before he could see the opening of his great project, which featured a groundbreaking ventilation system still in use today. Miller has done a fine job of piecing together his multiplicity of stories into a unified whole. Conversely, skull shape influences the expression of its ornamentation, mainly on the rostral region.

The expression of bone ornamentation on the skull table appears to be relatively stable and independent of phylogenetic frames and morphological disparity, whereas on the nasal it shows high plasticity in parallel with relative snout development. The possible functional implication of bone ornamentation might consequently be restricted to some anatomical regions skull table and osteoderms at least among the longirostrine forms.

The authors would like to address their respectful acknowledgements to Jonathan R. Wagner University of Texas for providing information about the use of Digimorph. The authors also would like to thank Salvador Bailon for giving them access to the comparative anatomy collections of the MNHN. Christopher Brochu provided three extra scanned specimens and brought his advice on crocodylians' phylogenetic nomenclature. Volume , Issue 2. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Journal of Anatomy Volume , Issue 2. Original Article Free Access. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Previous quantitative assessments of the crocodylians' dermal bone ornamentation this ornamentation consists of pits and ridges has shown that bone sculpture results in a gain in area that differs between anatomical regions: it tends to be higher on the skull table than on the snout.

Data acquisition Geometric morphometrics GM In order to accurately capture skull morphology of each skull, 33 landmarks were set on each specimen. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Landmarks used in this analysis. Dependent response variable a Independent explanatory variable: centroid size. Molecular 15 0. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Results The two combined main axes of PCA explain Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.

B OArelat n is the variable that is aimed to be explained depending on PC1 using either molecular or morphological phylogeny. The regression line is plotted on each figure.


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  8. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Block 2 on the right side : the values of GApit n and OArelat n that correspond to the skulls shown in Block 1 and that negatively covariate with PC1. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. C Optimization of OArelat n on a molecular phylogeny. D Optimization of OArelat n on a morphological phylogeny. Conclusion Although the functional signification of bone ornamentation remains a matter of conjecture, it is noticeable that its expression on the skull is never influenced by the size of the species.

    London : G. Weidenfeld , N.



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